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The Cenozoic Society

 "The Surgeon's Photo"                                                                                                                             "The Flipper Photo"
 (1934)                                                                                                                                                                                                (1972)

We are the Cenozoic Society; a small group of humans invested in the study of new animal life. Our credo: To expand the scope of knowledge about life on Earth through the unwavering endeavors to discover heretofore unknown species within the Animal Kingdom.

What is the most cunning of all animals?
That which no one has seen.
 - Tibetan proverb

It begins with the assumption that the animal exists...

As it stands, we have no factual evidence to indicate Loch Ness was ever inhabited by plesiosaurs. We have eyewitness reports around the world describing the beast from a wide range of perspectives, from the magnificent to the grotesque, and now almost always with tantalizing similarity, guided by suggestion though they may be, but we have no scientific proof that any human has ever laid eyes on a plesiosaur or any other animal believed to have died at the onset of the Cenozoic Era. Yet the essence of the plesiosaur has somehow become intertwined with human existence, reinforced by a taste for sensationalism for sure, yet reinforced with surprising ease. There is something about this creature that resonates within us as it did within [Marmaduke Wetherell] and his predecessors, beckoning us to believe what we dare not believe for fear of ridicule, entrapping us despite our confidence in our knowledge of the natural world. The serene countenance of the graceful monster on the water haunts us, tangible despite the eons we presume to have separated its flourish from ours. If this enduring presence is in fact a mere echo of life now gone from the face of the Earth, one cannot help but wonder if the plesiosaur did, after all, manage to hold on long enough to imprint itself on our memory.

Carl Curtis
Excerpted from "Treatise on the Prospect of Plesiosaurs";
Burnside, Holistic Examination of the Natural World 2.0



 Wire Report

 NED Highlights

 Lazarus Taxa

 Lake Monsters




FLAGSTAFF, 3/5/2007 - 
new species of eyeless albino millipede have been discovered on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon by university cave researchers in Arizona. According to J. Judson Wynne, a doctorate student of Northern Arizona University and a cave research scientist with the U.S. Geological Survey, the specimens are "living fossils," and stand as another instance of animals written off before their time.
    The species were confirmed as new by Bill Shear, a millipede expert from Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia.
    Wynne and Kyle Voyles of Bureau of Land Management have already discovered species of cricket in nearby caves and expect to find many more. Voyles described the millipede discovery as "the tip of the proverbial iceberg."
    Neither researcher commented on whether or not the discovery of a prehistoric millipede species lended support to allegations of the Mongolian death worm, a 5-foot-long, sulfuric acid-spewing mega-fauna diplopod said to inhabit the Gobi Desert.
    For centuries, local casualties have been attributed to this yet to be discovered creature, known as "allghoi khorkhoi," meaning "blood-filled intenstine worm," so named for its supposed resemblance to a length of disembodied cow intenstine. Though the Arizona researchers are reluctant to comment on a cryptid outside their region, the environment in the Gobi Desert offers a habitat similar to that in Arizona, and one wonders whether an expedition into Mongolia might be warranted in the interest of discovering another surviving arthropod species.


SAN JUAN, 5/9/07 - According to a U.S. Navy incident report, the St. Thomas Detachment of the U.S. Coast Guard began investigating what are being called "unidentified animal attacks" on several boaters in the Virgin Islands area. One incident occurred in Salt Island's Lee Bay, a popular anchorage for tourists diving on the wreck of the Rhone. Debris covered the surface of the small cove and lined the surrounding beaches
    Though the report did not specifically state that any final determinations of cause have been made, they seem to be leaning toward a explanation that would indicate either unusual animal behavior or evidence of an animal that hasn't been previously encountered. The report described "multiple boating accidents involving an unconfirmed number of casualties potentially attributable to an attack by an unidentified animal." A request was subsequently made to the University of Miami Gene Bank to analyze DNA left at the attack sites. The DNA did not conclusively match that of any known members of the Animal Kingdom, but did show similarities to Chelonia mydas, the green sea turtle, possibly pointing toward a reptilian attacker. So far, no witnesses have come forward to give any indication about what really happened.


BOULDER, CO, 7/11/07 - A man named Ferdie Cutlet has reported seeing what he called "a genuine snowmonster" while composting in his backyard outside Boulder last week. He indicated that what he saw was not "a bigfoot," as it had distinctly white hair and resembled the Abominable Snowmonster in the animated Christmas special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer. According to Cutlet, he ran into his house to get his rifle, and when he returned, the creature was gone. Cutlet claims he had not yet consumed any alcohol at the time he saw the creature, and he insists his report is accurate. He reported the incident to local police, who subsequently conducted a limited investigation in the wooded area around the nearby trailer park. 
    There were no other similar accounts of such a creature, and the matter remains unexplained. This is the second time Cutlet has reported seeing something resembling a yeti, more frequently reported in the Himalayan Mountains in Asia.
    Worth note: Rock legend Johnny Winter appeared at the Red Rocks Amphitheatre later the same day in nearby Morrison, Colorado. It has been said by some that Winter somewhat resembles a yeti.


10/30/07 - The Harvard Institute of Zoological Taxonomy (HIZT) officially registered the newly discovered Caribbean plesiosaur yesterday, making Pelagiteras cryptobranchii a formal member of the Animal Kingdom at long last. Officially, the common name is "neo-plesiosaur," although Dr. Pedro Torrez, author of the entry in the institute's Integrated Taxonomic Integration System database, is attempting to popularize the term "hellbender," currently also the name of a large salamander found in the northeastern United States. The HIZT has issued a new class of Phylum Chordata---the Sauropterygians---to contain the new species, so at least for now, based on Torrez's recommendation, these animals will not be considered reptiles.
    Although Torrez has been a friend to cryptozoologists in his championing of the new plesiosaur species, the attempts to saddle the animal with a name other than plesiosaur is an affront to those who have struggled to validate the Mesozoic species' present-day existence. That said, Torrez and the HIZT clearly stated that these animals are the direct descendants of plesiosaurs, as the reuse of the formerly defunct name Sauropterygia suggests.  
    Regardless of any residual reluctance on the part of the officials charged with establishing accepted taxonomy, whether or not they eventually let go of their traditional stubbornness, the day stands as a landmark in the history of cryptozoology, and brings all those in the field that much closer to legitimacy. Congratulations to the HITZ for finally getting things right---for the most part. 


1/17/2008 - Professor Rodney Lachatnour of Cambridge released a statement last week blasting Dr. Pedro Torrez and the Harvard Institute of Zoological Technology for admitting the Caribbean neo-plesiosaur to the list of official animal species. The letter was printed in its entirety in the most recent issue of British Scientist.
    Lachatnour wrote, "While this submission qualified as credible by standard criteria of the [ICZN], its acceptance proves nothing more than that there is no institution above having its reputation sullied by those who would exploit established scientific method and practises in connexion with such guiding principles."
    The diatribe was conveniently served up in a naked, letter-to-the-editor forum rather than through a publication, a route that Lachatnour does have at his disposal as a highly sought-after professor emeritus of an institute like Cambridge. Upon close inspection, the statement was essentially an overzealous, self-serving attempt to gain acclaim by association with the rapidly growing interest in this new animal species.
     Through the course of this repetitive and unrelenting rant, Dr. Lachatnour demonstrated his bias more blatantly than Dr. Torrez, a well-respected herpetologist. And while Torrez could potentially have an ulterior motive, Lachatnour seems to be leveling an equal load of criticism on Harvard, whose reputation for integrity is above reproach.
    This is ultimately a sad reminder that even the pillars of the supposedly reputable scientific community have not let facts get in the way of their desire to pooh-pooh anyone formerly considered a cryptozoologist. 


Sec. 1.3, p. 10: Large predators tend to be territorial. A species like this may have specific locations it revisits repeatedly; its kind may have been frequenting the same locations for hundreds of thousands of years, staying primarily within the deep ocean nekton. Paleontologists have theorized that these animals approach land to breed the way sea turtles do; this species may do so, possibly toward the polar regions and away from human population zones, but it seems more likely that this species avoids land entirely. While the behavior mechanisms of this species are still speculative, something clearly precipitated a change in the traditional pattern of the individual in question.

Sec. 2.1, p. 26: We think the individual effected an immediate shift in the ecological dynamic when it situated itself within the sphere of the continental shelf. While the introduction of a new predator predictably causes a defensive reaction, the subsequent behavior of the individual suggests its posturing was atypically aggressive, escalating progressively upon each encounter with humans, unlike behavior we would attribute to a species that has had a history of success at avoiding human detection.
    However, we estimate that despite this aggressive behavior, it was at least a week before the presence of this individual was noticed above the surface.

Sec. 3.7, p. 174: Taking into account what we knew about related species from the fossil record, we had assembled enough data to enable us to draw educated conclusions about this animal's physiology. Our predictions about the visual appearance and the approximate size of the body were on target, and our analysis findings on various organ systems and biochemistry were accurate; in retrospect, we should have been fully prepared to confirm our data upon observation.
    We were not.   






Every once in a while, evidence of a new animal emerges that proves scientists do not have the full story about present-day life on Earth. When a species disappears from the fossil record and is later found alive, it is known as a Lazarus taxon; figuratively back from the dead. Below is a list of some of those species, with the year of their rediscovery in parentheses:

Above: The coelacanth, discovered in 1938 after being presumed extinct in the Cretaceous

Coelacanth (1938)
Takahe (1948)
Bermuda petrel (1951)
Monoplacophora (1952)
Mountain pygmy possum (1966)
New Holland mouse (1967)
Long-legged warbler (1974)
Chacoan peccary (1975)
Gray's monitor (1975)
Prionomyrmex macrops ant (1977)
Gold-fronted bowerbird (1981)
Berlepsch's Parotia (1985)
Jerdon's courser (1986)
Mahogany glider (1989)
Night parrot (1990)
Woolly flying squirrel (1990)
São Tomé Grosbeak (1991)
Cebu flowerpecker (1992)
Madagascar serpent-eagle (1993)
Arakan forest turtle (1994)
Gilbert's poteroo (1994)
Laotian rock rat (1996)
New Zealand longhorn beetle (1996)
Forest owlet (1997)
Edward's pheasant (1998)
Tammar wallaby (1998)
Fernandina rice rat (1999)
La Gomera giant lizard (1999)
Madeiran land snail (1999)
Telmatobufo venustus frog (1999)
Bavarian pine vole (2000)
Philippine bare-backed fruit bat (2000)
Lord Howe Island stick bug (2001)
Cone-billed tanager (2003)

Cuban solenodon (2003)
New Zealand storm petrel (2003)
Terror skink (2003)
Burchell's zebra (2004)
Canterbury knobbed weevil (2004)
Gracilidris dolichoderine ant (2006)

Giant palouse earthworm (2006)

Above: The okapi, officially recognized as a species in 1901 after being considered for years to be an imaginary animal, known as the "African unicorn."

Kaempfer's woodpecker (2006)
Large-billed reed warbler (2006)
Madagascar pochard (2006)
Painted frog (2006)
Isthmohyla rivularis frog (2007)
La Palma giant lizard (2007)
frog (2008)
Banggai crow (2008)



The eyes of the world are on lakes, waterways, and coastal shores, watching for what's arguably the most intriguing of all the creatures that have managed to avoid detection: the lake monster. Brought to the awareness of the general public by sightings in and around Loch Ness, Lake Champlain, and Lake Okanaga, the lake monster has now been spotted on every continent, in hundreds of locations. The working assumption is that they spend most of their time lurking beneath the surface in a realm removed from humans, one of the more credible explanations on why these animals have been so successful at hiding. Below is a "deck" of the 52 most famous members of the lake monster family, now under investigation by cryptozoologists vying to become the first to uncover evidence of these elusive beasts.

 Aggie  Lake Argyle, Western Australia
 Auli  Lake Chad, Chad
 Auli  Lake T'ana, Ethiopia
 Beast of Busco; Ocar the Turtle  Fulks Lake, Indiana, USA
 Bessie; South Bay Bessie  Lake Erie, New York/Ohio/Pennsylvania, USA
 Bunyip  Lake Modewarre, Victoria, Australia
 Champ  Lake Champlain, New York/Vermont, USA
 Chipekwe  Lago Dilolo/Dilolo Swamps, Angola/Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Chipekwe  Lake Bangweulu/Kafue Flats/Lake Mweru/Lake Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia
 Chipekwe; Pamba  Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania
 Cressie  Crescent Lake, Newfoundland, Canada
 Eachie  Bassenthwaite Lake/Windermere, England
 Elizabeth Lake Monster  Elizabeth Lake, California, USA
 Gryttie  Gryttjen in Hälsingland, Sweden
 Hamlet  Lake Elsinore, California, USA
 Hudson River Monster  Hudson River, New York, USA
 Ichitapa  Lake Kashiba, Zambia
 Igopogo; Kempenfelt Kelly  Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada
 Illie  Iliamna Lake, Alaska, USA
 Irizima  Lake Edward, Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Isabella; Bear Lake Monster  Bear Lake, Idaho/Utah, USA
 Kingstie  Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada
 Lake Kanas Monster  Lake Kanas, China
 Lake Tianchi Monster  Tian Chi, China/North Korea
 Lakey  Lake Coleridge, New Zealand
 Le Monstre du Lac Hertel  Lac Hertel in Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada
 Lizzie  Lac Decaire, Quebec, Canada
 Loch Ness Monster; Nessie  Loch Ness, Scotland
 Lukwata  Lake Victoria, Kenya
 Mahamba  Maika Marshes, Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Manipogo  Lake Manitoba/West Hawk Lake, Manitoba, Canada
 Manitou  Homer Lake, California, USA
 Memphré  Lake Memphrémagog, Quebec, Canada
 Mokele-Mbembe  Mamfe Pool/Lake Makele/Lake Tebeki/Lake Télé, Cameroon/Republic of the Congo
 Mugwump  Lake Temiskaming, Ontario, Canada
 Mussie  Muskrat Lake, Ontario, Canada
 Nsanga  Bangweulu Swamp, Zambia
 Nyaminyami  Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe
 Ogopogo  Lake Okanaga, British Columbia, Canada
 Pepie  Lake Pepin, Minnesota, USA
 Ponik  Lac Pohénégamook, Quebec, Canada
 Rocky  Rock Lake, Wisconsin, USA
 Sharlie; Slimy Slim  Payette Lake, Idaho, USA
 Storsjöodjuret  Storsjön in Jämtland, Sweden
 Tahoe Tessie  Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada, USA
 Tarpie  Lake Tarpon, Florida, USA
 Thetis Lake Monster  Thetis Lake, British Columbia, Canada
 Thunder Bay Merbeing  Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
 Varberg Fortress Moat Monster  Varberg Fortress, Sweden
 Winnipogo  Lake Winnipeg/Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada
 Woodsie  Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada


Below is an effective report card of the more notable cryptids documented by various individuals around the world. Included for each creature are any official or unofficial alternative names, status of its standing within the scientific community, a brief description, and the region or locations of reported sightings.

  Notes on Status:

Confirmed Animal was previously thought extinct or mythical, but its existence has since been proven.
Discredited Sightings have been proven inaccurate due to misidentification.
Extinct Animal is believed to be extinct, and sightings that would prove otherwise are not supported by hard evidence.
Hoax Sightings have been proven to be intentionally fabricated.
Known Sightings can be explained by misidentification of a known animal species but have not been proven false (explanation is included).
Mythical Animal exists only in folklore, and sightings that would prove otherwise are not supported by hard evidence.
Unconfirmed Sightings cannot easily be explained, but no hard evidence exists to support the reports.



Name   Other Names   Status   Description   Location  
Adjule Kelb-el-khela Known: very rare African wild dog Canine Western Sahara
Agogwe Kakundakari Unconfirmed Small bipedal Eastern Africa
Ahool Unconfirmed Giant bat Indonesia
Akkorokamui Unconfirmed Fish Japan; Thailand
Almas Abnauayu, almasty, albasty, bekk-bok, biabin-guli, golub-yavan, gul-biavan, auli-avan, kaptar, kra-dhun, ksy-giik, ksy-gyik, ochokochi, mirygdy, mulen, voita, wind-man, Zana Unconfirmed Hominid Asia/Caucasus
Altamaha-ha Altie Unconfirmed River animal Georgia (United States)
Amarok Discredited Giant wolf of Inuit mythology Arctic
Ameranthropoides loysi De Loys' ape Known: spider monkey Primate South America
Amomongo Negros ape Unconfirmed Primate Negros, Philippines
Andean Wolf Hagenbeck wolf, Andean mountain wolf, Dasycyon hagenbecki Extinct Canine High Andes
Ayia Napa Sea Monster O filikos teras, Nappis Unconfirmed Cross of prehistoric sea creatures Cyprus
Barmanou Unconfirmed Primate Middle East/Asia
Batutut Ujit Unconfirmed Hominid East Asia
Bear Lake Monster Unconfirmed Lake animal Idaho/Utah (United States)
Beast of Bodmin Alien big cats (ABCs), phantom cats, English lions, Beast of Exmoor Known: escaped animals Carnivorous mammal Great Britain
Beast of Bodmin Moor Beast of Bodmin Unconfirmed Large felid England
Beast of Bray Road Michigan Dogman, Wisonson Werewolf Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal Wisconsin (United States)
Beast of Busco Churubusco turtle; Oscar Unconfirmed Reptile/dinosaur United States
Beast of Dean Moose-pig Unconfirmed Boar-like mammal England
Beast of Gévaudan Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal France
Bergman's Bear God bear; irkuiem Extinct Bear Asia
Bessie Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Erie, North America
Bigfoot Sasquatch, Skookum, Yeren, Yeti, Mapinguari Unconfirmed Hominid or primate North America
Black Shuck Old shuck Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal Coast of East Anglia, England
Bloop Unconfirmed Gigantic creature/unconfirmed sound South American southwest coast
Brosno dragon Brosnya Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Brosno, Russia
Bukit Timah Monkey Man BTM Unconfirmed Forest-dwelling hominid or primate Singapore
Bunyip Unconfirmed Lake and cave animal Australia
Burmese gray wild dog Unconfirmed Canine Burma
Burrunjor Arnhem Rex Unconfirmed Living dinosaur Australia
Buru Extinct Reptile or giant lungfish India
Cadborosaurus willsi Caddy, Cadborosaurus Unconfirmed Sea animal Pacific Coast of North America
Canvey Island Monster Known: anglerfish or batfish Bipedal England
Champ Champtanystropheus ?"Champtanystropheus", Champy Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Champlain, North America
Chessie Discredited Sea monster Chesapeake Bay/USA Atlantic coast
Chupacabra Goat Sucker Unconfirmed Reptile/canine; possibly 2 species; supernatural/alien creature Mexico/Puerto Rico/Texas
Con Rit Many-finned sea serpent, cetacean centipede, Great Sea-Centipede, Cetioscolopendra aeliana Unconfirmed Sea animal Southeast Asia, coast of Algeria
Dahu Unconfirmed Herbivorous mammal France, Switzerland
Deinotherium Extinct Herbivorous mammal Africa
Devil Bird Ulama Discredited Bird Sri Lanka
Dingonek Jungle walrus Unconfirmed A walrus that reportedly lives in the heart of Africa Western Africa
Dobhar-chu Carnivorous mammal Discredited Ireland
Dover Demon Unconfirmed Bipedal, alien-like Dover, Massachusetts, United States
Dragon Mythical Flying, legged, serpent-like reptile Worldwide
Drop bear Discredited Arboreal, predatory, koala-like marsupial, which attacks its prey by dropping onto it from above Australia
Ebu Gogo Homo floresiensis, Hobbit Unconfirmed Small primate or early hominid Flores, Indonesia
Elasmotherium Giant Rhinoceros Extinct Herbivorous mammal Asia
Elwedritsche Unconfirmed Mammal Germany
Emela-Ntouka Chipekwe, Irizima, Aseka-moke Unconfirmed Reptile/dinosaur or an undiscovered aquatic rhinoceros Republic of the Congo
Ennedi tiger Hadjel, Gassingram, Vossoko, Mourou N'gou, Mamaimé, Dilali, Saber-toothed cat Extinct Carnivorous mammal Chad, Africa
Fear liath Am Fear Liath Mòr, The Big Grey Man of Ben MacDhui, Greyman Unconfirmed Primate; possible humanoid Scotland
Flatwoods Monster Green Monster, Braxton County Monster Unconfirmed Extraterrestrial; spade-headed-alien West Virginia, United States
Flying Rod Sky Fish, rod, Sky Squid Discredited Possible bird or insect, likely a camera illusion Worldwide
Fouke Monster Boggy Creek Monster Unconfirmed Primate; possible humanoid Arkansas (United States)
Fur-bearing trout Hoax Fish with hair; hairy trout North America
Gambo Unconfirmed Sea animal Africa
Garou Loup Garou, Cajun werewolf Unconfirmed Wolf-like creature Louisiana (United States)
Gazeka Discredited Mammal Papua New Guinea
Getzko Gyetzko Unconfirmed Hominid Poland and Belarus, Eastern Europe
Giant anaconda Confirmed Giant snake (largest so far: 34 feet) South America
Giant Snake of Mt. Tsurugi Unconfirmed Reptile Japan
Giglioli's Whale Amphiptera pacifica Unconfirmed Sea animal Off Chile, Scotland, and Provence, France
Globster Unconfirmed Decaying sea animal Australia, New Zealand, Caribbean
Gloucester Sea Serpent Great Sea Serpent of New England Unconfirmed Sea serpent Massachusetts, United States
Gnome Goblin Unconfirmed Small humanoid Argentina
Goatman The Maryland Goatman, Chevo Man Unconfirmed Bipedal United States, Wisconsin, Maryland, New York State
Grass Mud Horse Caonima, Cao Ni Ma Hoax Alpaca-like China (Gobi Desert)
Grassman Kenmore Grassman, Ohio Grassman Unconfirmed Bigfoot-like; primate Kenmore, Akron, Ohio, United States
Grinning Man Indrid Cold, Karl Ardo, Demo Hassan (names of supposed Grinning Men encountered by contactees) Unconfirmed Extraterrestrial, Men In Black (MIB) Elizabeth, New Jersey and Point Pleasant, West Virginia, United States
Grootslang Unconfirmed Elephant with a serpent's tail Richtersveld, South Africa
Gunni Hoax Antlered, wombat-like marsupial Marysville and surrounding area, Victoria, Australia
Hibagon Hinagon Unconfirmed Primate Japan
High-finned sperm whale Unconfirmed Cetacean Shetland Islands
Hodag The Dag; Nasobatilus Hoax Carnivorous mammal/lizard United States, Wisconsin
Homo gardarensis Discredited Hominid (acromegalic Homo sapiens?) Greenland
Hoop snake Hoax Reptile United States/Australia
Huaychivo Discredited Carnivorous mammal Yucatan (Mexico)
Hyote Discredited Canine United States, Maryland
Igopogo Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Simcoe, Ontario
Iliamna Lake Monster Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Iliamna, Alaska
Inkanyamba Unconfirmed Lake animal Africa
Isshii Issie Unconfirmed Lake animal Japan
Jackalope antelabbit, Aunt Benny, Wyoming thistled hare, stagbunny Hoax; known: influenced by rabbits infected with the Shope papilloma virus Herbivorous mammal North America
Japanese Wolf Extinct Carnivorous mammal Japan
Jersey Devil Leeds Devil Unconfirmed Winged bipedal horse United States, esp. New Jersey
Kaijin Unconfirmed Sea Monster Japan
Kala Bandar Black Monkey, Monkey-man of Delhi Unconfirmed Big black monkey seemed to be the reason of disaster in areas around Old Delhi (India) India
Kappa Gataro, Kawako Mythical Bipedal Japan
Kasai Rex Discredited Reptile/Dinosaur, possibly Carcharodontosaurus Africa
Kikiyaon Unconfirmed Carnivore bird Africa
Kingstie Lake George Monster Discredited Lake animal Lake Ontario, North America
Komodo dragon Komodo monitor, Komodo Island monitor, Ora Confirmed Giant lizard Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia
Kongamato Unconfirmed Pterosaur/Bird/Bat Kenya
Kraken Unconfirmed Legendary giant squid or octopus World's oceans
Kting Voar Holy Goat, Snake-eating Cow, Khting Vor, Linh Duong, Pseudonovibos spiralis Discredited Herbivorous mammal Vietnam, Cambodia
Kumi Lizard Extinct Giant monitor lizard New Zealand
Kusshii Unconfirmed Lake animal Japan
Lagarfljóts Worm lagarfljóts ormurinn Unconfirmed Lake animal Iceland
Lake Tahoe Monster Tahoe Tessie Discredited Lake monster California and Nevada, United States
Lake Tianchi Monster Lake Chonji Monster Unconfirmed Lake animal China
Lake Van Monster Monster of Lake Van Unconfirmed Lake animal Turkey
Lake Worth monster Lake Worth Goatman, Texas Bigfoot Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal United States, Texas
Lariosauro Como Lake Monster Unconfirmed Water reptile Italy
Lizard Man Lizard Man of Lee County, " of Scape Ore Swamp Unconfirmed Bipedal United States, South Carolina
Lizard Man Draconian, Reptoid, Dinosauroid, Dragonoid, Reptilian Unconfirmed Bipedal Worldwide
Loch Ness Monster Nessie, Nessiteras rhombopteryx Unconfirmed Lake monster Loch Ness, Scotland
Loveland Frog Loveland Lizard Unconfirmed Bipedal lizard or frog Ohio, United States
Lusca Unconfirmed Sea animal World's oceans
MacFarlane's Bear Ursus inopinatus Extinct Carnivorous mammal Canada
Mahamba Unconfirmed Giant crocodile Republic of the Congo
Maltese Tiger Blue Tiger Known: tiger with abnormal coloration due to mutation Carnivorous mammal China
Mamlambo Unconfirmed Lake animal South Africa
Manananggal Unconfirmed Humanoid Philippines
Manatee of Helena Unconfirmed Manatee St Helena
Mande Barung Mande Burung, Indian Yeti Unconfirmed Humanoid North East India
Manipogo Winnipogo Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Manitoba, Canada
Manticore Discredited Lion-Dragon Asia Mainland
Mapinguari Unconfirmed Herbivorous mammal Amazon Rainforest
Maricoxi Unconfirmed Primate South America
Marozi Spotted Lion Unconfirmed Lion-like cat Africa
Marsupial Lion Thylacoleo, Thylacoleo carnifex Extinct Carnivorous marsupial mammal Australia
Masamin Unconfirmed Black creature with a beak Wisconsin, US
Mbielu-Mbielu-Mbielu Unconfirmed Reptile/dinosaur Republic of the Congo
Mecheny Unconfirmed Primate Asia
Megalania prisca Giant Australian monitor lizard Extinct Giant Komodo dragon Australia
Megalodon Carcharodon Extinct Giant shark World's oceans
Menehune Unconfirmed Primate United States, Hawaii
Merpeople Mermaid, Merman Unconfirmed Man-Fish The Seven Oceans and several seas
Messie Unconfirmed Lake creature Lake Murray, South Carolina, U.S.
Minhocão Unconfirmed Caecilian South America
Minnesota Iceman Homo pongoides Unconfirmed Primate United States, Minnesota
Mitla Fawcett's zorro or Fawcett's cat Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal Bolivia rainforest
Mngwa Nunda Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal Africa
Moa Extinct Giant flightless bird New Zealand
Moehau The Hairy Moehau, The Moehau Monster Unconfirmed Primate New Zealand
Mokele Mbembe Unconfirmed Reptile/Dinosaur Republic of the Congo
Mo-Mo Missouri Monster Discredited Primate United States, Missouri
Mongolian Death Worm Allghoi khorkhoi, Orghoi khorkhoi Unconfirmed Worm-like animal Gobi Desert
Mono Grande Unconfirmed Hominid South America
Montauk Monster Mounty Unconfirmed Possible partly decomposed and mutilated carcass of a dog which looked like a monster Montauk, Long Island
Morag Unconfirmed Lake animal Scotland
Mothman Indrid Cold, Grinning Man (Human form) Unconfirmed Winged bipedal West Virginia, United States
Muckie Unconfirmed Lake animal Lakes of Killarney, Ireland
Muc-sheilch Unconfirmed Lake animal Scotland
Muhm Mumh Unconfirmed Primate, Mountain-dwelling hominid; Female shaped animal (some old inhabitants say it was a goat-like creature, with head of female). Several dead bodies of Muhms were reported after great Earthquake of 1935. Quetta, Pakistan
Muhuru Unconfirmed Reptile/Dinosaur Kenya
Mussie Unconfirmed Lake animal Ontario, Canada
Muwa Waray-Waray, Mawa Unconfirmed Primate, forest-dwelling hominid Eastern Samar, Philippines
Mylodon Extinct Giant prehistoric ground sloth Southern Patagonian forests
Nabau Unconfirmed Giant snake Malaysia
Naga Naga, Nak, Phaya Nak Unconfirmed Legendary large snake Mekong river border between Thailand and Laos
Nahuelito Unconfirmed Lake animal Argentina
Nandi Bear Chemosit, Chimiset, Chimisit, Duba, Engargiya, Gadett, Ikimizi, Kerit, Kikambangwe, Kikomba, Koddoelo, Ngoloko, Sabrookoo, Shivuverre Known: hyena Carnivorous mammal Africa
Ndendeki Unconfirmed Giant turtle Republic of the Congo
Neo-Giant Unconfirmed Primate Worldwide
Ngoima Unconfirmed Giant monkey-eating eagle Republic of the Congo
Ngoubou Unconfirmed Reptile/Dinosaur Cameroon
Nguma-monene Unconfirmed Reptile/Dinosaur Republic of the Congo
Nguoi Rung Forest People Unconfirmed Primate Vietnam
Ningen Unconfirmed Sea monster with human features Antarctica; Pacific, near Japan.
Nyalmo Unconfirmed Primate Asia
Ogopogo N'ha-a-itk, Naitaka Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Okanagan, Canada
Old Yellow Top Unconfirmed Primate Canada
Olitiau Unconfirmed Winged animal Cameroon
Orang Mawas Mawa, Orang Dalam, hantu jerang gigi Unconfirmed Primate Malaysia
Orang Pendek Unconfirmed Primate, has been associated with Homo floresiensis Sumatra
Orang-Bati Unconfirmed Bipedal Indonesia
Owlman Cornish Owlman, Owlman of Mawnan Unconfirmed Bird England
Ozark Howler Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal United States, Arkansas & Missouri
Phantom cats Alien Big Cats (ABCs) Known: various escaped animals Carnivorous mammal Worldwide
Phantom kangaroo Proposed: escaped animals Marsupials Various
Phaya Naga Unconfirmed Lake animal Laos, Thailand
Pinatubo Lake Monster Discredited; known: groups of fish Lake animal, giant eel Zambales, Philippines
Pogeyan Known: leopard colour morph or out-of-place Asian lion Grey felid Ghats (Himalayan foothills), India
Pope Lick Monster Unconfirmed Bipedal United States, Kentucky
Popobawa Unconfirmed Africa
Pouakai Extinct Large carnivourous eagle New Zealand
Pressie Unconfirmed Lake creature United States, Michigan
Pukwudgie Unconfirmed Bipedal United States, Massachusetts
Qilin Unconfirmed
Queensland Tiger Yarri Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal Australia
Rat king Unconfirmed Group of rats Europe
Renton River Beast Unconfirmed Humanoid Pacific Northwest of U.S.
Rhinoceros Dolphin Unconfirmed Cetacean
Road Troll Discredited Humanoid United States
Ropen Indava, duwas, seklo-bali, kundua, wawanar Unconfirmed Flying animal/Pteradactyl Papua New Guinea
Row Discredited Reptile New Guinea
Ryugyo Unconfirmed Sturgeon-like fish Japan
Salawa Seth, Salaawa Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal Egypt
Sampson Unconfirmed Giant carnivorous snapping turtle Sampson's Pond, Carver, Massachusetts
Sea Monk Discredited; known: various misidentified animals Sea animal World's oceans
Sea monsters Unconfirmed Sea animal World's oceans
Sea serpent Unconfirmed Sea animal World's oceans
Selma Seljordsormen Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Seljord, Telemark, Norway
Setontot Discredited Malaysia
Sharlie Slimy slim, The twilight dragon of Payette lake Unconfirmed Lake animal Lake Payette, McCall, Idaho, USA
Shug Monkey Unconfirmed Primate Europe
Shunka Warakin Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal; wolf-like, boar-like, hyena-like American West (especially Montana)
Sigbin Unconfirmed Canine, Cat-fox, civet Philippines
Simurgh Dog-bird, Angha Unconfirmed Bird Iran
Sirrush Mushrushu Unconfirmed Reptile/Dinosaur Africa, Ancient Babylon
Skunk Ape Unconfirmed Primate Florida, United States
Skvader Hoax Mammal Sundsvall, Sweden
Slow Down Unconfirmed Sea creature: unidentified sound Pacific Ocean
Smilodon Saber Tooth Tiger Extinct Prehistoric felid Deep jungles in Colombia, southern Argentina
Storsjöodjuret Unconfirmed Lake animal Sweden
Stronsay Beast Discredited; known: basking shark Sea animal Orkney, Scotland
Sucuriju Gigante Giant Bull Eater; Giant Anaconda Unconfirmed Giant boa Amazonia
Takitaro Unconfirmed Giant fish Japan
Tapire-lauara Unconfirmed Lion/Pig The Amazon Rainforest
Tatzelwurm Unconfirmed Reptile/amphibian European Alps
Thunderbird Unconfirmed Giant bird North America
Thylacine Tasmanian Tiger, Tasmanian Wolf Extinct Carnivorous marsupial Tasmania, Australia
Tjutjuna Chuchunaa Unconfirmed Primate Russia
Trinity Alps Monster Unconfirmed Giant salamander United States, California
Trunko Unconfirmed Sea animal South Africa
Tsuchinoko Unconfirmed Reptile/Snake Japan
Tsul 'Kalu Unconfirmed Primate American West
Turtle Lake Monster Unconfirmed Lake monster Saskatchewan, Canada
Unicorn Mythical Horse Europe
Veo Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal Indonesia
Waheela Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal Canada
Waitoreke Unconfirmed Carnivorous mammal New Zealand
Willy Unconfirmed Aquatic creature Willoughby, Vermont, USA
Winnie Unconfirmed lake monster Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire
Wippy Whippy Unconfirmed Lake monster Lake Massawippi, Canada
Wolpertinger Crisensus bavaricus Hoax Mammal Germany
Wucharia Unconfirmed Canine Danakil depression, Eritrea
Yeren Unconfirmed Primate (possible hominin) China
Yeti Abominable Snowman Unconfirmed Primate Asia (Himalayas)
Yowie Unconfirmed Primate Australia
Zuiyo Maru Hoax Plesiosaur carcass New Zealand





All original artwork, narrative text, and graphic design by Robert Grofe and James A. Rock & Co., Publishers. Note: Product names, logos, brands, and other trademarks occurring or referred to within the pages of this website are the property of their respective owners.

Additional images by Mark Pellegrini (2005), Arthur Weasley (2006, 2007, 2008), Dmitry Bogdanov (2008), Henry Alcock-White (2005, 2006), Tamas Iklodi (2008), Wikimedia Commons user MANOJTV (2006), and any others for whom identification was unknown and/or unobtainable are published by their respective authors under the following conditions: permission is granted to copy, distribute, and/or modify these images under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license can be found at the following location:

Additional images by William Tait (1842), Phillip O'Donnell, Timothy O'Donnell, and Garth Guessman (2008), Adam Stuart Smith and
www.plesiosauria.com (2002), Sam Fentress (2005), Pierre Brial (2008), Hugo Heikenwaelder (1999), Henry Alcock-White (2006), Zachary Davies (2007), Andrew Dunn (2004), Zach Tirrell (2005), Wikimedia Commons users "Celtus" (2007), "RJFerret" (2004), and "Wars" (2006), and any others for whom identification was unknown and/or unobtainable are published by their respective authors under the following conditions: permission is granted to copy, distribute, and modify the image on the condition that the author is accredited as specified in the Creative Commons Attribution Unported License, Version 3.0 or any later version published by the Creative Commons. A copy of the license can be found at the following location: creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.

Other images by Bishop Erik Ludvigen Pontoppidan (1975), Albertus Seba and J. Fortuÿn (1734), Pierre Denys de Montfort (1802), Conrad Gesner (1558), Olaus Magnus (1555), Hans Egede (1734), Gustave Doré (1865), Robbie Cada (2007), Tobias Jakobs (2006), Tina R. Lamb (2002), Brian Adler (2007), and others are believed to be in the public domain.

"The Surgeon's Photo," purportedly copyrighted by Robert Kenneth Wilson (1934), "The Flipper Photo," copyrighted by the Academy of Applied Science and the Loch Ness Investigation Bureau (1972), and "The Mansi Photo," copyrighted by Sandi Mansi (1977), are presented here as faithful representations of these three unique historic images; the image of "the Abominable Snowman of the North" is a screenshot from the film Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, copyrighted by Rankin/Bass (1964), and is presented here solely because it makes a significant contribution to the reader's understanding of the descriptive text, which could not practically be conveyed by words alone, with the understanding that the use of this image for this purpose does not compete with the purposes of the original work, namely the creator providing graphic design services to film concerns and in turn marketing films to the public; it is believed that the use of all of these images qualifies as fair use under United States copyright law.

The image of blackberries isbelieved to be copyrighted by High Hopes Gardens (2008) and is presented as shown on the website www.highhopesgardens.com to illustrate the descriptive text with the understanding that the use of this image for this purpose does not compete with the purposes of the original work, namely the creator providing graphic design to market produce to the public; it is believed that the use this image qualifies as fair use under United States copyright law.

All original artwork, narrative text, graphic design, and images are presented in good faith that no copyright infringements are being committed; if we are in error and/or have inappropriately used or accredited design, text, or images, please notify us via e-mail at
hellbender.rwgrofe@gmail.com, and we will immediately accredit the item in question as instructed, provide any necessary links to the source, or have it removed.

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